Author: msk

immune-response

Immunity

Ability of the human body to resist and fight all types of organisms and toxins is called Immunity. 3 layers of Immunity Barrier Immunity Innate Immunity...

Mass Clavicle

Mass in Medial Clavicle | Cases

Lump over Medial clavicular region close to SCJ 57 ♀. Reports slow growing lump in chest region for over 5 years. No trauma. Gets some shoulder...

Monoarthropathy – Knee | Cases

27 ♀. 10 Year history of Knee pain. Used to do running but now doesn’t due to pain. Previous diagnosis – Bakers Cyst which was drained....

Bony mets Spine

Bony Mets – No Primary | Cases

Skeletal Metastases of Unknown Primary – SMUP Presentation 64 ♂, Retired, likes walking. C/o: Right sided lumbosacral pain. No reported P+N or Numbness. Onset – 6...

Cytokine

Cytokine

Cytokines are glycoproteins that are secreted by different cells in the body, mainly cells of the immune system (leucocytes). They play a role in the immune system,...

Lumbar Vertebrae

Lumbar Spine

5 Vertebrae discs sandwiched between bodies act as shock absorbers alignment is straight. by definition if there is a curve 10° or more, then it is...

Phosholipid

Pain, Arachidonic Acid Pathway

How is pain mediated? How does injury cause pain? Injury causes (even a bacterial infection causes an injury to a cell / cell membrane) disruption of...

Lipoma Arborescens

Lipoma Arborescens | Cases

(2016) Patient (♂) aged 44 attends physical therapy department with right knee pain. He gives a 5 year history of knee pain. He has noticed on...

Blood Constituents

Blood | Constituents

Total Blood Volume (TBV) = 8% of body weight in kg. e.g. someone weighing 70 kg will have 0.08 x 70 kg = 5.6 kg =...

Antibody

Antigen & Antibody

Antigen = Anti + Gen = Antibody + Generation Any substance that is capable of causing an immune response thereby causing the production of antibodies is...